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Словообразование при помощи суффиксов в английском языке.

Словообразование при помощи суффиксов

Многие новые слова в английском языке образуются путем аффиксации, когда к началу или концу слова (корня) прибавляются префиксы en-joy, dis-like, re-read или суффиксы develop-ment, self-ish.

Аффиксы – префиксы и суффиксы. Префиксы стоят в начале слова, а суффиксы – в конце.

Префиксы, как правило, изменяют значение слова, но не меняют его принадлежности к той или иной части речи:

order (существительное) порядок - disorder (существительное) беспорядок.

Суффиксы служат для образования одной части речи их другой:

beauty (существительное) красота – beautiful (прилагательное) красивый.

 

Префиксы

Префиксы с отрицательным значением

Префиксы с отрицательным значением – un-, in-, dis-, non-.

Un-

comfortable – uncomfortable,

limited         -  unlimited.

Префикс un- иногда присоединяется к глаголам для выражения противоположного действия:

to load        -  to unload,

to lock        -  to unlock,

In-

ability        -  inability,

complete    -  incomplete.

Перед l префикс in- превращается в il-, перед r – в ir-, а перед m и p - в im-:

legal          -  illegal,

regular      -  irregular,

patient      -  impatient.

Dis-

Этот префикс выражает отрицание или противоположное действие:

отрицание                                                    противоположное действие

to like – to dislike,                                         to appear – to disappear,

honest – dishonest,                                        to arm     -  to disarm.

Non-

Слова с префиксом non- чаще всего пишутся через дефис:

conductor – non-conductor.

 

 

 

 

 

Префиксы с разными значениями

 

Префикс

 

 

Значение

 

Соответствие русской приставке

 

Примеры

 

anti-

отрицание

анти- противо-

fascist - antifascist

co-

между, взаимно

со-

existence – co-existence

counter-

 

контр-

attack - counterattack

ex-

бывший

экс-

champion - ex-champion

en-

делать

 

rich - enrich

inter-

между, среди, взаимно

 

national - international

mis-

неправильно, неверно

 

to understand –

to misunderstand

over-

сверх, чрезмерно

пере-

to load – to overload

post-

после (противоположен по значению префиксу  pre-)

 

war – postwar

pre-

перед, ранее

до-

historic - prehistoric

re-

снова, заново, вновь.

пере-

to read – to reread

sub-

 

под

division - subdivision

ultra-

ультра-, сверх

 

short - ultrashort

under-

недостаточно (противоположен по значению префиксу over-)

 

to pay - to underpay

 

Суффиксы

Суффиксы существительных

 

Суффикс

 

 

Значение

 

Примеры

-age

а) действие, условие или резуль- тат;

б) количественное значение или значение собирательности;

в) место действия, место жительства

to marry – marriage

acre - acreage

herb – herbage

to harbour - harbourage

-ance

-ence

процесс, состояние или свойство

important – importance

different - difference

-dom

абстрактные и собирательные существительные, обозначающие:

а) общественный статус или яв- ление;

б) состояние

 

 

king - kingdom

 

free - freedom

-ее

лицо, на которое направлено действие

to address - addressee

-er,

-or

действующее лицо

to sell – seller

to visit - visitor

-ery,

-ary,

-ry

а) место;

б) действие, род занятия или деятельности; поведение или связанное с ним качество;

в) состояние или положение

 

to bind – bindery

to rob – robbery

chemistchemistry

slave - slavery

-hood

а) состояние, общественное поло- жение;

б) качества, свойства;

в) совокупность людей или семей-ные отношения

child - childhood

 

saint - sainthood

brother - brotherhood

-ian

национальная принадлежность

Russia - Russian

-ician

лицо по роду работы, занятий

mathematics - mathematician

-ion,

-ation,

-tion,

-sion,

-ssion

а) действие, процесс, состояние;

б) абстрактное понятие; свойство, качество

to transform – transformation

to accommodate -    accomo-dation

-ism

отвлеченные имена существитель- ные

Marx - Marxism

-ist

профессия, принадлежность к  партии, религии, философскому течению

to type - typist

Marxist

-ment

a) действие, процесс, состояние;

б) результат действия или продукт деятельности

to move – movement

to improve – improvement

-ness

качество или состояние

hарру - happiness

-ship

а) положение человека в обществе; звание, должность, титул;

б) умение, мастерство, искусство; занятие;

с) чувство, отношение к чему-либо;

д) абстрактные понятия

captain – captainship

draftsman – draftsmanship

comrade – comradeship

citizen - citizenship

-ute,

-ture

а) процесс, состояние; свойства; абстрактное понятие;

б) сфера деятельности; офици-альное учреждение и его функции

to depart – departure

portrait – portraiture

 

-y

абстрактные и собирательные существительные

soldier - soldiery

 

 

Exercises

  1. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффикса er или -or. Переведите на русский язык.

To act, to conduct, to compose, to direct, to drive, to fight, to found, to invent, to lead, to mine, to read, to report, to speak, to teach.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных слов существительные при помощи суффиксов   -ist, -ism, -ian. Переведите на русский язык.

Art, social, type, capital, music, international, piano, electric, Canada, Russia.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффикса ment. Переведите на русский язык.

To improve, to measure, to disappoint, to pave, to announce, to agree, to state, to govern, to require, to arrange, to move, to develop, to achieve.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффиксов ion, -ation, -sion, -ssion, -tion. Переведите на русский язык.

To collect, to combine, to connect, to dictate, to include, to introduce, to produce, to restrict, to submit.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных прилагательных существительные с помощью суффикса ness. Переведите на русский язык.

Bitter, absolute, damp, cold, dark, kind, happy, weak.

  1. 6. Образуйте как можно больше  существительных, используя префиксы и суффиксы из таблицы. Можно пользоваться словарем.

dis- excite                                                   -y

un- appoint                                                 -ship

im- honest                                                  -ment

patient                                                  -ness

success                                                 -ion

direct                                                      -full

kind                                                        -less

profit

help

friend

luck

like

 

Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами –  существительными.

More and more often people are told not to be in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet (1)________ from the sun can cause skin cancer. Normally the ozone (2)________ in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, if there are no holes in it. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air (3)____________ . The air needs (4)________ and care. Man is beginning to understand that his (5)_________ is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth.

 

RADIATE

LAY

 

 

POLLUTE

PROTECT

ENVIRON

KEY:  1 radiation, 2 layer, 3 pollution, 4 protection, 5 environment.

 

(1)__________ are proud of their Constitution. It was written more than 200 years ago and it is still working! But the people of the United states can change the Constitution. Changes in the Constitution are called (2)___________.  The first ten of them are called the Bill of Rights. They were made in 1791. The Bill of Rights guarantees to people of the USA very important rights and (3)__________. Soon after the Civil War (1861-1865) there were three important amendments. The 13th amendment ended (4)_________ , the 14th amendment made all Black people  (5)__________ of the United States, the 15th amendment gave Blacks the right to vote.

AMERICA

 

 

 

AMEND

 

 

FREE

 

SLAVE

CITY

 

Key:  1 Americans, 2 amendments, 3 freedoms, 4 slavery, 5 citizens.

 

Lord Byron (1788-1824) didn’t live a long life. He was an aristocrat and a fashionable man. But he loved (1)_________ and a simple country life. His (2)_________ attracted Britain and all Europe. He brought to his (3)_________ romanticism of his times. He was talented and handsome, noble and brave. (4)_________ admired him. In 1812 he became famous after the (5)__________of his autobiographic poem “Childe Harold”.

 

 

FREE

PERSONAL

POET

 

LONDON

PUBLIC

 

KEY:  1 freedom, 2 personality, 3 poetry, 4 Londoners, 5 publication.

 

 

10.

I always wanted to be a great (1)_________. I had the dreams of discovering a new drug that would save the lives of hundreds of people. Unfortunately I was never good at (2)_________ at school and the teacher used to be very cross with me. After a while I decided I would become an (3)_________ and design an amazing new (4)_________ which would become a household name. A few weeks later I had a brilliant idea for a pen that would write upside down. To my (5)_________ a friend of mine pointed out that it was not a new (6)________.

SCIENCE

 

 

SHEMIST

 

INVENT

PRODUCE

 

DISAPPOINT

DISCOVER

 

Key:  1 scientist, 2 chemistry, 3 inventor, 4 production, 5 disappointment, 6 discovery.

 

 

 

11.

The trade union (1) _____________ has a long and important history in Britain, but since 1980 the influence of trade unions has declined dramatically.

Trade union (2)_____________ has fallen because of changes in the    structure   of  (3)______   ,  including

(4)__________, the shift away from manufacturing, the rise in smaller firms, the increase in part-time employment, and the constructing out of work. The Conservative government restricted unions’ (5)___________ to launch strikes and made unions legally responsible for the actions of(6)____________; this has considerably reduced union power and substantially decreased the number of strikes, called (7)____________.

MOVE

 

 

MEMBER

EMPLOY

PRIVATIZE

 

 

 

ABLE

 

STRIKE

 

STOP

 

Key: 1 movement, 2 membership, 3 employment, 4 privatization, 5 ability, 6 strikers, 7 stoppages.

Суффиксы прилагательных

 

Суффикс

 

 

Значение

 

Примеры

-able

а) возможность осуществления;

б) обладание некоторым качест-вом

to change – changeable

to comfort - comfortable

-al

подобие, сходство, обладание некоторым сходством

addition - additional

-an,

-ian

-ean

принадлежность к какой-нибудь народности, родовому клану; идеологическому течению, науч-ной школе и т. п

Arab - Arabian

-ant,

-ent

cоответствующие существитель-ные имеют суффиксы –ant и -ent

importance – important

difference - different

-ar

обладание чем-то, сходство с чем-то

circle - circular

-ary

-ery

качество

diet - dietary

-en

сделанный из чего-либо

wood - wooden

-er

сравнительная степень прилага-тельных

big - bigger

-ern

прилагательные, образованные от названий сторон света

east - eastern

-ese

национальность или язык

China – Chinese

-est

превосходная степень прилага-тельных

tall – the tallest

-ic,

состав, структура чего-либо, отношение к чему-либо

drama - dramatic

-ish

а) национальная принадлежность;

б) слабая степень качества (соответствует русским суффиксам –оват, еват)

Scotland – Scottish

red - reddish

-ive

относящийся к, принадлежащий, связанный с

nature - native

-ful

наличие качества

beauty - beautiful

-less

отсутствие качества

hope - hopeless

-ous

обладающий данным свойством, признаком, характеристикой в значительной степени

danger - dangerous

-y

качество

stone - stony

 

 

Exercises

  1. Образуйте от данных существительных  прилагательные при помощи суффиксов full и -less. Переведите их на русский язык.

Aim, care, beauty, hope, doubt, fruit, use, power, thank, harm, colour.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных глаголов прилагательные при помощи суффиксов able и -ible. Переведите их на русский язык.

To change, to eat, to compare, to convert, to profit, to read, to comfort, to respect, to expect.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных существительных прилагательные при помощи суффикса al. Переведите на русский язык.

Centre, culture, form, intellect, post, accident, comic.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных существительных прилагательные при помощи суффикса y. Переведите на русский язык.

Cloud, dirt, fog, frost, rain, sun, thirst, wind.

 

  1. Образуйте как можно больше прилагательных, используя префиксы и суффиксы из таблицы. Можно пользоваться словарем.

 

un- patient                                             -able

dis- history                                             -al

non- honest                                              -ant

in- west                                                 -ern

il- marvel                                              -y

ir- happy                                              -less

im- national                                            -ous

pre- conscious                                         -ful

post- act                                                    -ish

inter- war                                                  -ive

legal                                                 -ic

regular                                              -ern

capable

beauty

hope

boy

sun

rain

skill

home

care

comfort

brown

interest

usual

help

 

Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами – прилагательными.

  1. 6.

All my classmates say that I’m (1)________. I enjoy wearing (2)________ clothes. I like to look smart and  (3)________. We can’t go through life with the same hairstyle or make-up. It’s very (4)_________ to follow fashion. I hate when people dress alike, because they buy clothes in “chain” stores. I prefer hand-made or design clothes. My classmates say that I’m (5)________, but it’s not a sin, is it? Sometimes I turn up in something really (6)_________. When you are up with fashion you feel you are individual.

TREND

STYLE

ATTRACT

IMPORTANCE

 

 

MATERIALIST

 

EXTRAVAGANCE

 

Key: 1 trendy, 2 stylish, 3 attractive, 4 important, 5 materialistic, 6 extravagant.

 

 

  1. 7.

For (1)_________ people, the ‘Far East” is the broad coast along the Pacific Ocean, facing Alaska in the far north and Japan in the sub-tropical south, and including the large island of Sakhalin. Inland lie forests, mountains, lakes, rivers and marshes known as Siberia. Siberia is usually divided into Western and Eastern, the former is (2)________ and low-lying and rich in oil, the latter is (3)________and rich in minerals, gold and diamonds.

The twenty million people who live in this region are mostly Russians and Ukrainians by origin. Besides there live other people. They all call themselves (4)_______ and speak of Russia as beginning west of the Urals.

RUSSIA

 

 

 

 

 

MARSH

MOUNTAIN

 

 

SIBERIA

 

KEY:  1 Russian,  2 marshy, 3 mountainous, 4 Siberians.

Water pollution is a serious (1)________ problem today.

“Water, water everywhere, not any drop to drink,” said the sailor from Coleridge’s poem describing to a friend how awful it was to be without drinking water on a ship in the middle of the ocean. It is strange to think  that the water around his ship was probably quite safe to drink. It

was (2)________ - but not polluted. The sea waters today are much more (3)_________ . Many seas are used for dumping (4)________ and nuclear waste.

ECOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

SALT

DANGER

INDUSTRY

 

Key: 1 ecological, 2 salty, 3 dangerous, 4 industrial.

 

The United States is a large country with many (1)__________ natural wonders. It goes from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the islands of Hawaii in the Pacific, and from cold, snowy (2)__________ Alaska to (3)_________ Florida in the southeast.  Also, it has many kinds of land – (4)________ coasts, dry empty deserts, (5)__________ rivers, wide plains and grasslands, lakes of all sizes, high mountains, great forests, sunny beaches and lands of  (6)__________ winter. More than 250 million people live in the US. But the country is very big, so there is still a lot of open space and (7)_______ scenery outside the cities. Americans have tried to save many of the most (8)__________  wild areas of the United States. There are a lot of parks, forests and wildlands where you can enjoy the beauty and power of wild America. The Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley, and Yellow-stone are among the most (9)________.

 

DIFFER

 

NORTH

SUN

ROCK

POWER

 

END

 

NATURE

 

BEAUTY

 

 

 

FAME

 

 

KEY:  1 different, 2 northern, 3 sunny, 4 rocky, 5 powerful, 6 endless, 7 natural, 8 beautiful, 9 famous.

 

  1. 10. Переведите следующие слова, выделите в них суффиксы и префиксы. Назовите часть речи.

Brotherhood, helpless, boredom, unequal, drinkable, golden, leader, Japanese, secondary, anti-fascist, similar, peacemaker, surgery, furniture, comical, convenient, acceptable, achievement, anonymous, academician, Georgian, disarmament, witty, hysterical, Buddhism, co-existence, scientific, materialist, radiant, rootless, international, measurement, underground, creature, dirty, agrarian, absoluteness, yellowy, inventor, technical, various, tactless, comradeship, creature, reddish.

 

Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами – существительными и прилагательными.

11.

Alan Alexander Milne, the youngest of the family’s three sons, went to Westminster School at the age of 11 and then went on to Cambridge to become a (1)__________ .

But he never did. Instead he became (2)_________ of the university journal “Granta” in which he published some of his light (3)_________ poems. Then he went to London hoping to earn his living as a (4)_______. By and by London magazines began to publish his (5)________ works, and in 1905 he published his first book, a shilling paper-back (6)_________ of humorous essays. Aged only 24 he was given a post of (7)________ editor of the (8)__________ magazine “Punch”.

 

 

MATHEMATICS

EDIT

 

HUMOUR

WRITE

 

WIT

COLLECT

ASSIST

FAME

 

Key: 1 mathematician, 2 editor, 3 humorous, 4 writer, 5 witty, 6 collection, 7 assistant, 8 famous.

 

12.

The Olympic Games are an (1)___________ sports festival that began in ancient Greece. The (2)_________ Greek games took place every fourth year for several hundred years, until they were brought to an end in the early (3)__________ era. The Olympic games were renewed in 1896, and since then they have been staged every fourth years, except during World War I and World War II. Perhaps the main (4)_________ between ancient and modern Olympics is that for the ancient Greeks the Games were a way of saluting their gods, when the modern Games are a manner of saluting the (5)________ talents of people of all nation. The original Olympics included (6)__________ in music, oratory, and theatre (7)_________ as well. The modern Games haven’t got them, but they represent a lot more sports than before. For two weeks and a half any international conflicts must be stopped and replaced with friendly competitions. This is the noble idea on which the modern Olympic (8)________ is based.

NATION

ORIGIN

 

 

CHRIST

 

 

DIFFER

 

 

ATHLETE

 

COMPETE

PERFORM

 

 

 

 

MOVE

 

Key: 1 international, 2 original, 3 Christian, 4 difference, 5 athletic, 6 competitions, 7 performances, 8 movement.

 

13.

The people of the United States are a (1)________ of many (2)________. Every American schoolchild learns that the United States is the big “melting pot” of countries. In a melting pot (3)________ metals are melted together to make a new metal. The United States is like a melting pot for people. In the past, people from many different (4)_________ countries came to the US and made one country out of many. These different people brought to their new land a (5)________ mixture  of customs and traditions. The Germans brought Christmas trees, the Irish brought St. Patrick’s Day (6)__________, the Scots brought Hallowe’en.

MIX

NATION

 

DIFFER

 

 

EUROPE

 

WONDER

 

 

CELEBRATE

 

Key: 1 mixture, 2 nationalities, 3 different, 4 European, 5 wonderful, 6 celebrations.

 

14.

Isn’t it (1)_________ to discover new places? Travel has always been a part of people’s (2)__________. It teaches people about art and culture. It teachers them to be understanding. You can also improve your knowledge of foreign languages. What is more, (3)________ is the basis of the biggest (4)________ in the world. Tourists spend a lot of money. Rich countries can sell cars and computers. But what can poor countries sell? Their (5)________ beaches and their wonderful countryside.

WONDER

EDUCATE

 

 

TOUR

BUSY

 

 

BEAUTY

 

Key: 1 wonderful, 2 education,3 tourism, 4 business, 5 beautiful.

 

15.

There are amateur cricket clubs all over England, but there is a big (1)_________ between the amateur and the (2)_________ cricketer. The amateur cannot get money for the game. The professional (3)_________ is in a much (4)__________ class. He has to learn many kinds of skills. He has to be an athlete, to run fast and jump and turn like a gymnast. He must be (5)___________, and must not let other (6)_____________ be (7)__________ with him.

 

DIFFER

PROFESSION

CRICKET

HIGH

 

PATIENCE

PLAY

HONEST

 

Key: 1 difference, 2 professional, 3 cricketer, 4 higher, 5 patient, 6 players, 7 dishonest.

 

16.

This museum is the world’s (1)_______ museum of (2)_________ arts. It houses many of the world’s  (3)_________ treasures. Here you’ll find the national collection of (4)_________, furniture, music instruments, textiles and dress, ceramics and glass, silver and (5)_________ from European and non-western countries.________

FINE

DECORATE

GREAT

SCULPT

 

JEWEL

 

Key: 1 finest, 2 decorative, 3 greatest, 4 sculpture, 5 jewellery.

 

17.

Action films? What a bore! Criminals, shooting, (1)________. Nothing else. I agree that such films have the right to exist. They have some positive features. They are dynamic, (2)________ and full of special effects. But they are (3)_________. I can’t believe one man can win over the Mafia. Some people watch (4)_________ to cool off and such films are good for them. But other people can get sick and (5)________ especially teenagers. There are (6)_________ ways to cool off, I think.

 

EXPLOSIVE

 

DRAMA

REAL

VIOLENT

 

NERVE

GOOD

 

Key: 1 explosions, 2 dramatic, 3 unrealistic, 4 violence, 5 nervous, 6 better.

 

Суффиксы глаголов

Глагол несет значение соответствующего прилагательного или существительного, на основе которого он сформирован.

 

 

Суффикс

 

 

Значение

 

Примеры

-ate

делать, осуществлять

active - activate

-en

действие, придающее качество, выраженное в основе глагола

sharp – to sharpen

-fy,

-ify

делать, осуществлять, превращать

simple - simplify

-ize(AE)

-ise(BE)

вести себя подобно, проводить ту или иную политику или производить действие

private - privatize

 

 

Exercises

  1. Образуйте от данных прилагательных глаголы, используя суффикс en. Переведите на русский язык.

Black, sharp, short, red, soft, deep, dark, bright, weak white, sweet, wide.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных прилагательных глаголы, используя суффикс fy. Переведите на русский язык.

Simple, pure, beauty, solid, identic(al), false intense.

 

  1. Образуйте от данных существительных глаголы, используя суффикс     ize(ise). Переведите на русский язык.

Character, crystal, sympathy, agony, apology.

 

Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами – глаголами.

 

Like many modern developed countries, The United Kingdom has a mixed economy. This means that some sectors of economy are operated by the government and some are operated by private business. Since World War II, Britain has worked to (1)_________ the mix of private and public enterprises in order to (2)_________ the country’s economy and (3)_________ the economic well-being of its citizens. After World War II the government (4)__________, or took over, a number of large and troubled industries. These included coal, electricity, transport, gas, oil, steel, car and truck manufacturing, shipbuilding and aircraft building. Since the 1950s, the government has (5)________ a number of these industries, selling them to private firms.

 

 

 

 

EQUAL

MAXIMUM

SURE

 

NATION

 

 

 

PRIVATE

 

 

 

Key: 1 equalize, 2 maximize, 3 ensure, 4 nationalized, 5 privatized.

 

Суффиксы наречий

 

Суффикс

 

 

Значение

 

Примеры

-ly

наречие с тем же качеством, что и слово, от которого оно образовано

bad - badly

-wards

-ward

направление или направленность

after – afterwards

home - homeward

 

Exercises

  1. 1. Образуйте наречия при помощи суффикса ly и переведите их.

Silent, wide, cruel, happy, rapid, quick, part, first, extreme.

 

Суффиксы числительных

 

Суффикс

 

 

Значение

 

Примеры

-teen

числительные от 13 до 19

six - sixteen

-ty

десятки

six- sixty

-th

порядковые числительные

six- sixth

Exercises

  1. 1. Напишите  противоположное по значению слово, используя префиксы. Можно пользоваться словарем.

Appear, kind, join, equal, normal,  credible, friendly, employed, trust, cover, known, use, important, honest, professional, safe, fair, pleased, emotional, pack, correct, agree, possible, regular, understand, definite, legal, like, advice.

 

  1. Выделите словообразующие элементы, исходное слово, определите, к какой части речи относятся данные слова. Переведите на русский язык.

Weakly – weakness – to weaken, bitterly – bitterness, unhappy - happily – happiness, suddenly – suddenness, equally – unequal – equality, to enrich – enrichment, patiently – impatient – patience, irresponsible – responsibility, unstable – stability – to stabilize – stabilization, harmful – harmless – harmlessness, glorious – inglorious –to glorify, to discontinue – continuation – continual – continually, relation – relative – relatively, attractive – unattractive – attraction.

 

Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Подумайте над следующими вопросами:

  1. 1. Каким членом предложения является пропущенное слово?
  2. 2. Какой частью речи этот член предложения выражен (обратите внимание на исходную форму слова, напечатанную заглавными буквами на полях)?
  3. 3. Какая грамматическая форма образуется по контексту?
  4. 4. Каковы особенности правописания этой формы?

The individual states all have (1)________ forms of government with a senate and a house. There is only one (2)_________, Nebraska, which has only one (3)________ body of 49 senators. All have (4)________ branches headed by state governors and (5)_________ court systems. Each state has its own constitution. But all must respect the federal laws and not make laws that interfere with the laws of the other states. The Us Constitution determines federal(6)__________.

All other (7)__________ belong to the states and to the local (8)__________ .

REPUBLIC

 

ECEPT

LEGISLATE

EXECUTE

DEPEND

 

 

 

RESPONSIBLE

AUTOMATICAL

COMMUNE

 

Key: 1 republican, 2 exception, 3 legislative, 4 executive, 5 independent, 6 responsibilities, 7 automatically, 8 communities.

 

Bike (1)_________ appeared in Russia with the (2)___________ of Moscow motorbike club ‘Night Wolves’. (3)__________ it was founded on May 31,1989. But the core of it appeared in the early 80s. A (4)__________ in Russia prefers a heavy bike like Harley Davidson and a leather jacket. The club is so (5)________  not only in Russia but also all over the world that the first  Russian Bike Show, which took place in 1995, attracted a lot of guests from abroad.

CULTURE

APPEAR

OFFICIAL

 

BIKE

 

FAME

 

 

Key: 1 subculture, 2 appearance, 3 officially, 4 biker, 5 famous.

 

Football (soccer) is the (1)________ sport, and British club teams are often (2)________ in Europe. But British football today has a bad fame at home and abroad, because of the (3)_________ of some groups of fans who get drunk and fight with each other. Most British fans (4)_________ violence and help the police to put an end to it.

NATION

SUCCESS

 

VIOLENT

 

LIKE

 

Key: 1 national, 2 successful, 3 violence, 4 dislike.

 

In Britain people (1)________ pay compliments on the things they like about the people they are talking to. They also expect to hear “Thank you!” in response to a compliment. Besides, they add something to keep the (2)________ going.

In Britain people usually do not (3)_________ with compliments. Sometimes they pay a compliment in return. Too many compliments may be interpreted as (4)_______. But not enough compliments may be interpreted as a sign of (5)_________.

USUAL

 

 

 

CONVERSE

AGREE

 

 

SINCERE

LIKE

 

Key: 1 usually, 2 conversation, 3 disagree, 4 insincerity, 5 dislike.

 

Every year more than eleven million tourists visit Britain. In fact, tourism is an (1)__________ industry, employing thousands of people. Most (2)__________   come in the summer months when they can expect good weather. Tourists (3)_________ spend a few days in London, then go on to other well-known cities. Perhaps the least visited places in England are old (4)_________ towns. But many people think that nineteenth-century cities show the (5)_________ of Britain.

The (6)_________ of the past is to be still seen in their old streets.

 

IMPORTANCE

 

VISIT

USUAL

 

 

INDUSTRY

 

REAL

GREAT

 

Key: 1 important, 2 visitors, 3 usually, 4 industrial, 5 reality, 6 greatness.

 

Test

  1. Выделите словообразующие элементы, исходное слово, определите, к какой части речи относятся данные слова. Переведите на русский язык.

Patiently – impatient – patience, unstable – stability – to stabilize – stabilization, possibly – impossible – possibility, inattention – attentive – attentively, helpless – helplessly – helplessness, limitation – unlimited – limitless, to coexist – existent – existence – coexistence, to disappear- to reappear – appearance – disappearance.

 

  1. 2. Образуйте как можно больше  существительных, используя префиксы и суффиксы из таблицы.

un- fit                                                  -ality

ex- act                                                 -ity

re member                                         -ty

over- popular                                          -ation

dis- love                                               -ition

use                                                  -(t)ion

cruel                                               -ance

happy                                            -er

collect                                           -ship

develop                                         -ment

organize                                        -ness

agree

explain

protect

perform

champion

appear

 

  1. От данных прилагательных  образуйте  прилагательные, используя префиксы in-, un- il-, ir-, im-, dis-, ultra-.

Happy, honest, patient, comfortable, legal, short, possible, modern, responsible, direct, logical.

 

  1. Образуйте прилагательные, используя суффиксы –able, -al, -ant, -ent,      -ful, -ish,-less.

To differ, to eat, to compare, brown, care, to resist, use, fruit, home, to resist, form, shame.

 

  1. Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

 

 

The English language is (1)________ growing and changing. No one has ever included every word from the language in a single dictionary. To do that would mean to (2)_______ the dictionary every day, which is (3)________. But people have a lot of (4)________ about the growing and (5)________of the language, its (6)_________ .

Scholars have (7)________ ideas of how any new (8)________ contributes to the process of new words (9)________. When people are faced with a new (10)________ and they do not have a word for its (11)________, they sometimes make up one. But no one makes a formal (12)________ about it.

CONSTANT

 

 

WRITE

POSSIBLE

INFORM

DEVELOP

EXPAND

VARY

DISCOVER

ADOPT

SITUATE

DESCRIBE

 

DECIDE

Key: 1 constantly, 2 rewrite, 3 impossible, 4 information, 5 development, 6 expansion, 7 various, 8 discovery, 9 adoption, 10 situation, 11 description, 12 decision.


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Комментарии  

 
+3 lager 9 апреля 2013, 12:22
Очень много информации, которую очень сложно выучить. Я лично и половины из этого не знаю, по этому думаю, что ЕГЭ по английскому сдавать вряд ли буду.
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+2 Skyfire 19 марта 2013, 8:14
Очень хороший урок. Я многое из этого не очень хорошо знал. Думаю сдавать ЕГЭ по английскому, не знаю, получится у меня или нет, но попробовать думаю. Для начала пробное сдам, посмотрю какие там задания.
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+1 Pheonix 8 марта 2013, 23:57
Для меня английский язык это что то далекое. Я вроде бы и слова знаю как пишутся, знаю их перевод, но вот словообразовани е не понимал как происходит. Думаю, что если пару часиков посидеть, то можно во всем разобраться.
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+1 Salazaga 6 марта 2013, 17:15
Отличный урок, так как я не всегда понимал, где лучше использовать те или иные суффиксы. Особенно часто я путал префиксы in- и un-, так как во многих словах кажется, что можно использовать и тот и другой.
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